Monday, September 26, 2016

Had+ Had Sentences

Question from Mr. Ravi Chandran:
Dear sir,
I need to know about had + had sentences.
If possible kindly forward the document about it.
Thanking you.

Answer from Open School:

Have had and had had


Study the examples given below.
  • have finished the report.
Here the auxiliary verb have forms the present perfect tense with the past participle finished.
  • have been working on that report
Here the auxiliary have helps in the formation of the present perfect continuous tense.
Have can also be used as a main verb. In this case it is followed by an object. As a main verb, have is used to talk about our possessions, relations, experiences etc.
  • I have a sister.
  • She has a car.
  • He has a nice job.
  • I have breakfast at 8.30.
  • I have a shower before I go to bed.
  • I have a nap in the afternoon.
When have is used as an ordinary verb, it has pastand past participle forms.
  • I usually have bread and butter for breakfast, but yesterday I had pasta.
  • had a heavy breakfast in the morning, now I don’t feel like eating anything.
The present perfect form of have is have had.
  • Have you had your breakfast?’ ‘I have had a cup of coffee, but I haven’t had anything to eat yet.’
  • I haven’t had any rest since morning.
The past perfect form of have is had had (had + past participle form of have).
The past perfect tense is used when we are talking about the past and want to refer back to an earlier past time.
  • She felt marvelous after she had had a good night’s sleep.
  • They dismissed him before he had had a chance to apologize.

Friday, September 16, 2016

Subject - Verb Agreement

Question from Manish Bhai (Sent Via Micromax Mobile):

What is verb subject agreement?

Open School Answer:

Basic Principle: Singular subjects need singular verbs; plural subjects need plural verbs. My brother is a nutritionist. My sisters aremathematicians.

See the section on Plurals for additional help with subject-verb agreement.
The indefinite pronouns anyone, everyone, someone, no one, nobody are always singular and, therefore, require singular verbs.
·         Everyone has done his or her homework.
·         Somebody has left her purse.

Some indefinite pronouns — such as all, some — are singular or plural depending on what they're referring to. (Is the thing referred to countable or not?) Be careful choosing a verb to accompany such pronouns.
·         Some of the beads are missing.
·         Some of the water is gone.

On the other hand, there is one indefinite pronoun, none, that can be either singular or plural; it often doesn't matter whether you use a singular or a plural verb — unless something else in the sentence determines its number. (Writers generally think of none as meaning not any and will choose a plural verb, as in "None of the engines are working," but when something else makes us regard none as meaning not one, we want a singular verb, as in "None of the food is fresh.")
·         None of you claims responsibility for this incident?
·         None of you claim responsibility for this incident?
·         None of the students have done their homework. (In this last example, the word their precludes the use of the singular verb.

Some indefinite pronouns are particularly troublesome Everyone and everybody (listed above, also) certainly feel like more than one person and, therefore, students are sometimes tempted to use a plural verb with them. They are always singular, though. Each is often followed by a prepositional phrase ending in a plural word (Each of the cars), thus confusing the verb choice. Each, too, is always singular and requires a singular verb.
Everyone has finished his or her homework.

You would always say, "Everybody is here." This means that the word is singular and nothing will change that.

Each of the students is responsible for doing his or her work in the library.
Don't let the word "students" confuse you; the subject is each and each is always singular — Each is responsible.

Phrases such as together with, as well as, and along with are not the same as and. The phrase introduced by as well as or along withwill modify the earlier word (mayor in this case), but it does not compound the subjects (as the word and would do).
·         The mayor as well as his brothers is going to prison.
·         The mayor and his brothers are going to jail.

The pronouns neither and either are singular and require singular verbs even though they seem to be referring, in a sense, to two things.
·         Neither of the two traffic lights is working.
·         Which shirt do you want for Christmas?
is fine with me.

In informal writing, neither and either sometimes take a plural verb when these pronouns are followed by a prepositional phrase beginning with of.This is particularly true of interrogative constructions: "Have either of you two clowns read the assignment?" "Are either of you taking this seriously?" Burchfield calls this "a clash between notional and actual agreement."

The conjunction or does not conjoin (as and does): when nor or or is used the subject closer to the verb determines the number of the verb. Whether the subject comes before or after the verb doesn't matter; the proximity determines the number.
·         Either my father or my brothers are going to sell the house.
·         Neither my brothers nor my father is going to sell the house.
·         Are either my brothers or my father responsible?
·         Is either my father or my brothers responsible?

Because a sentence like "Neither my brothers nor my father is going to sell the house" sounds peculiar, it is probably a good idea to put the plural subject closer to the verb whenever that is possible.
The words there and here are never subjects.
·         There are two reasons [plural subject] for this.
·         There is no reason for this.
·         Here are two apples.

With these constructions (called expletive constructions), the subject follows the verb but still determines the number of the verb.

Verbs in the present tense for third-person, singular subjects (he, she, it and anything those words can stand for) have s-endings. Other verbs do not add s-endings.

He loves and she loves and they love_ and . . . .
Sometimes modifiers will get betwen a subject and its verb, but these modifiers must not confuse the agreement between the subject and its verb.
The mayor, who has been convicted along with his four brothers on four counts of various crimes but who also seems, like a cat, to have several political lives, is finally going to jail.

Sometimes nouns take weird forms and can fool us into thinking they're plural when they're really singular and vice-versa. Consult the section on the Plural Forms of Nouns and the section on Collective Nouns for additional help. Words such as glasses, pants, pliers, and scissors are regarded as plural (and require plural verbs) unless they're preceded the phrase pair of (in which case the word pairbecomes the subject).
·         My glasses were on the bed.
·         My pants were torn.
·         A pair of plaid trousers is in the closet.

Some words end in -s and appear to be plural but are really singular and require singular verbs.
·         The news from the front is bad.
·         Measles is a dangerous disease for pregnant women.

On the other hand, some words ending in -s refer to a single thing but are nonetheless plural and require a plural verb.
·         My assets were wiped out in the depression.
·         The average worker's earnings have gone up dramatically.
·         Our thanks go to the workers who supported the union.

The names of sports teams that do not end in "s" will take a plural verb: the Miami Heat have been looking … , The Connecticut Sun are hoping that new talent … . See the section on plurals for help with this problem.

Fractional expressions such as half of, a part of, a percentage of, a majority of are sometimes singular and sometimes plural, depending on the meaning. (The same is true, of course, when all, any, more, most and some act as subjects.) Sums and products of mathematical processes are expressed as singular and require singular verbs. The expression "more than one" (oddly enough) takes a singular verb: "More than one student has tried this."
·         Some of the voters are still angry.
·         A large percentage of the older population is voting against her.
·         Two-fifths of the troops were lost in the battle.
·         Two-fifths of the vineyard was destroyed by fire.
·         Forty percent of the students are in favor of changing the policy.
·         Forty percent of the student body is in favor of changing the policy.
·         Two and two is four.
·         Four times four divided by two is eight.

If your sentence compounds a positive and a negative subject and one is plural, the other singular, the verb should agree with the positive subject.
·         The department members but not the chair have decided not to teach on Valentine's Day.
·         It is not the faculty members but the president who decides this issue.
·         It was the speaker, not his ideas, that has provoked the students to riot.

Monday, September 5, 2016

English Grammar - Tenses Explained

Verb Tenses

Verbs come in three tenses: past, present, future. The past is used to describe things that have already happened (e.g. earlier in the day, yesterday, last week, three years ago). The present tense is used to describe things that are happening right now, or things that are continuous. The future tense describes things that have yet to happen (e.g. later, tomorrow, next week, next year, three years from now).
The Present Tenses

* Simple Present
* Present Perfect
* Present Continuous
* Present Perfect Continuous

The Past Tenses

* Simple Past
* Past Perfect
* Past Continuous
* Past Perfect Continuous

The Future Tenses

* Simple Future
* Future Perfect
* Future Continuous
* Future Perfect Continuous

Present Tenses:

Simple Present Tense:

Simple Present Tense (Present Indefinite)

The simple present tense is the one which we use when an action is happening right now, or when it happens regularly (or unceasingly, which is why it’s sometimes called present indefinite). The simple present tense is formed by using the root form or by adding ‑s or ‑es to the end, depending on the person.
Regular Verbs
In present tense, regular verbs use the root form, except for third person singular (which ends in ‑s).
First person singular: I write
Second person singular: You write
Third person singular: He/she/it writes (note the ‑s)
First person plural: We write
Second person plural: You write
Third person plural: They write

This sentence implies that I write grammar books on a regular basis, perhaps as a career.
Anna writes the letter.
This sentence could be from a narrative, telling a story about what Anna is doing right now.
Here are some other examples:
I go, you go, he/she/it goes, we go, you go, they go
I see, you see, he/she/it sees, we see, you see, they see
I learn, you learn, he/she/it learns, we learn, you learn, they learn

Irregular Verbs
Irregular present tense verbs are things like to be, which change for each person.
First person singular: I am
Second person singular: You are
Third person singular: He/she/it is
First person plural: We are
Second person plural: You are
Third person plural: They are
I am 20 years old.
You are 20 years old.
He is 20 years old.

Present Perfect Tense
The present perfect is used when an action began in the past yet is still relevant. It’s created by using the present tense of have + the past participle.

I have seen
You have seen
He/she/it has seen
We have seen
You have seen
They have seen
Martha has asked for the day off.
Who Has Seen the Wind is an excellent book.
They have slept in because it’s Saturday morning.
Remember to look out for irregular past participles.

He has drunk all the milk again.
The dogs have lain down in front of the fire.
You’ve left your umbrella behind.

Present Continuous Tense (Present Progressive Tense)

When something is happening at the same time we’re talking about it, that’s when we use the present continuous tense. We form it by using the present tense of be + present participle (the root word + ‑ing).
She is washing the car as we speak.
Are you coming with us to the party?
Where are we  going?
I am not arguing with you; I am discussing the matter with you.
Remember not to use the present continuous tense with non-action verbs like seem and know. These verbs should use the simple present.
She is seeming tense.
She seems tense.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense (Present Perfect Progressive Tense

The present perfect continuous is used with actions that began in the past and are still continuing. The formula for present perfect continuous is present tense of have + been + present participle (root + ‑ing). You’ll most often see this verb tense used with the wordsfor and since.
What have you been doing since I last saw you?
We’ve been moving house. There are still boxes to unpack.
They’ve been watching  TV for three hours now.
The car has been sitting in the garage, unused, since last month.
Has Mary been going to all her classes?
Remember not to use the present perfect continuous tense with non-action verbs like be,seem, and know. These verbs should use the present perfect.
Mary has been seeming tired.
Mary has seemed tired.

Past Tenses:

Simple Past Tense

The simple past refers to things that have already happened, and are finished doing their thing.
World War II was from 1939-1945.
Mom cooked supper.
I did the dishes.
Margaret aced her math exam.
Regular Verbs
Regular verbs are changed to the simple past by adding ‑ed to the end of the root form. If the verb already ends in ‑e, we just add ‑d.
  • Play – played
  • Type – typed
  • Listen – listened
  • Push – pushed
  • Love – loved
Irregular Verbs
Irregular verbs follow no pattern when they change to the simple past tense. You’ll have to check a dictionary if you’re unsure as to what the past tense might be.
  • See – saw
  • Build – built
  • Go – went
  • Do – did
  • Leap – leapt
  • Rise – rose
  • Dig – dug
Some verbs don’t change from their present form.
  • Put – put
  • Cut – cut
  • Set – set
  • Cost – cost
  • Hit – hit

Past Perfect Tense

The past perfect tense is used to show that one action in a sentence finishes before a second action begins. Words like before and after are indicators that the past perfect tense may be used; however, there are no strict rules for this situation. You must choose the best verb tense for your sentence.
The past perfect is created by using I had, you had, he/she had, we had, you had or they had + past participle.
Both of these sentences are correct.
After he tied his shoes, he left the house.
After he had tied his shoes, he left the house.
The maitre d’ poured the dessert wine, but not until the cake had been cut.
The baby ripped the book before the mother had noticed him playing with it.

Past Continuous Tense (Past Progressive Tense)

The past continuous tense is used to refer to several temporal situations. It’s made with the past tense of be + the present participle (the root word = ‑ing).
Narrative in past tense.
It was raining. The water was pouring down in sheets and the passersby wre getting wetter with every step, despite their umbrellas.
When one action is happening at the time of another particular time.
It was raining at noon.
It was raining during lunch.
When one action is happening at the same time as another.
It was raining while I was out walking.
Remember not to use the past continuous tense with non-action verbs like seem and know. These verbs should use the simple past.
I was knowing my neighbour quite well.
I knew my neighbour quite well.

Past Perfect Continuous Tense (Past Perfect Progressive Tense)

The past perfect continuous is written by using the past tense of have + been + present participle. It’s used when one activity in the past was happening before or after another activity had taken place. Look for the words for, since, and before.
The car had been sitting in the garage, unused, for a month.
It was 5 o’clock; his parents had been waiting for him since 2 o’clock.
Before they immigrated, my father had been working as a surgeon and my mother had been training to be a psychiatrist.
We'd been walking  for only 5 minutes when the rain started.
Remember not to use the past perfect continuous tense with non-action verbs like be, seem, and know. These verbs should use the past perfect.
The baby had been being cranky all night.
The baby had been cranky all night.

Future Tenses

Simple Future Tense

The simple future is the tense we use when something will begin and end later. It’s created by putting will in front of the root word.
I will learn a new language.
Annie will make a cake.
The cat will sleep all day.
Will you come  to the beach with us?
Who will become the next president?

Future Perfect Tense

The future perfect is used to talk about an action that will be finished before something else happens in the future. It’s made by using will + have + the past participle. Look for key words which suggest the action is in the future, such as later, tomorrow, next week and next year.
I promise I will have this finished by the end of today.
Hopefully, the prospectors will have found gold before winter comes.
 Will you have shaken that cold by next week, do you think?
We will have eaten all the food by the time he arrives.
Remember to check for irregular past participles.

Future Continuous Tense (Future Progressive Tense)

The future continuous relates one action in the future to another specific action or time.
It’s formed this way: will + be + present participle (root word + ‑ing).
We will be going  to the gym after work.
 Will you be joiningus?
At 5 a.m. tomorrow, they will be departing Alaska.
 I'll be returning home next Thursday.
Remember not to use the future continuous tense with non-action verbs like seem and know; include be in this list for future continuous tense. These verbs should use the simple future.
She will be being here at 3:00.
She will be here at 3:00.

Future Perfect Continuous Tense (Future Perfect Progressive Tense)

The future perfect continuous tense is used much like the future perfect, but one of the actions is likely to continue beyond the other. It can also be used when one action will be continuing at a certain time in the future. Create the future perfect continuous this way: willhave + been + present participle (root + ‑ing). Look for key words like in and by.

In September, I will have been going to school for 4/5 of my life.

By 2015, you will have been living in Mexico longer than you’ve lived anywhere else.

By the end of this month, she will have been working long enough to get benefits.

In three months, they will have been seeing each other for a year.

Remember not to use the future perfect continuous tense with non-action verbs like be, seem and know. These verbs should use the future perfect.

Tomorrow, I will have been being here for a week.

Tomorrow, I will have been here for a week.